V. Levchenko, I. Shulga, L. Nemerytska, I. Zhuravska, А. Romanyuk


Topical issues of forest pest monitoring using the pheromone method in the forest tracts of the State Enterprise "Zarichanske Forestry" are substantiated, and the organizational aspects of this promising event in the fight against major pests of forest plantations in the State Enterprise "Zarichanske Forestry" are considered.

The subject of the work is the physiological features of conifers and leaf-eating forest pests, which are common in the forests of the State Enterprise "Zarichanske Forestry". Particular attention in the research process was paid to such forest pests as: pine luboid, apical bark beetle, six-toothed bark beetle, pine sawfly, pine goldfinch, May beetle, marble beetle. These species have become widespread not only in the forest edatopes of the State Enterprise "Zarichanske Forestry", but also in the forest ecosystems of the Zhytomyr Regional Department of Forestry and Hunting. All of the above forest pests cause significant damage to forest stands at different ages. A significant degree of entomological load per unit of forested area in the conditions of the State Enterprise "Zarichanske Forestry" exacerbates the harmful effects of the above pests, which leads to massive damage to forests, their drying and death.

The aim of the work is a detailed study of the possibility of using the method of pheromone diagnostics and monitoring of forest pests, as well as the possibility of preventing the destruction of forest edatopes on the example of the State Enterprise "Zarichanske forestry".

The main methods of work on the introduction of pheromone monitoring of forest pests are calculation and analytical collection and processing of the results of forest entomological examination of pine, oak, birch plantations, monitoring of the impact of different types of pheromone traps on the effectiveness of entomological forecasts. , as well as conducting route surveys of arriving and mature stands to determine the nature of drying depending on the degree of damage by different species of needles and leaf-eating pests.

According to the results of the work, it was established that pheromones are a very effective method of monitoring and diagnosing various types of forest pests. It was found that most of the studied forest pests respond quite effectively to pheromonization and this will further allow not only to monitor but also to predict possible outbreaks of mass reproduction of forest pests in the conditions not only of the State Enterprise "Zarichanske Forestry" Zhytomyr Polissya in particular.

The scope of the research results is forestry enterprises of the Zhytomyr Regional Department of Forestry and Hunting in order to preserve and protect pine, oak, aspen, birch, alder forest plantations from forest pests in the Polissya region of Ukraine.

The conclusions of the research are that the use of pheromones in pheromone traps allows to detect the presence of the species in nature, the beginning of flight of the adult pest and to determine the time for measures to destroy it, to obtain data on the number of poisoned pests during the flight or other period of time. . Conduct forest pathological observations of changes in the number of pest populations. The pheromone method of diagnosis makes it possible to objectively count the outbreaks of certain species of forest pests and the ability to compare their current numbers with the number of pests of previous years. Promptly implement measures to carry out forest protection measures in the Polissya zone of Zhytomyr region. Practical recommendations for the use of pheromones for monitoring and forecasting of coniferous and leaf-eating pests are given, the threshold (economically dangerous) quantities of catching pests with pheromone traps are recommended. As a result of our research, we found that the maximum criterion for catching silkworms-nuns in pine plantations during the flight is 50 males / ha. The traps are placed at the rate of 4-6 pcs. on 3-5 hectares. For the unpaired silkworm, this figure is 60 males, for the pine moth - 30. Pheromone traps are essential in determining the direction and rate of spread of populations of major coniferous and leaf-eating pests. We found that the use of pheromone traps in accounting areas located in hard-to-reach habitats of pests has significant prospects, where the use of traditional methods of counting (route-key ground survey with felling of trees and knocking) at the beginning and end of the season remains almost the only method. observation and requires large labor and material costs. It has been established that pheromone traps make it possible to study previously unknown aspects of the biology and ecology of pests of the squamous family. It is investigated that the variability of some morphological characteristics of adult insects during the flight season, as well as the mechanisms of sexual communication of adults, the study of which is of great importance in the organization of the pheromone monitoring system. It is substantiated that the use of pheromone traps for monitoring forest entomological studies is especially appropriate at extremely low densities of forest pest populations, when it is almost impossible to detect the insect visually. It is proved that the use of pheromone traps allows to predict the timing of measures to control leaf and coniferous rodent pests in forest stands. As a result of research, we have proved that pheromone traps are used as a means to reduce the number of males by catch, ie to create a so-called male vacuum, thus trying to increase the number of unfertilized females in the population. The results of research confirm that this method of control of scale insects is possible only in relatively small isolated forest stands with a low number of pests and is often ineffective. We found that this method is most often applied to bark beetles and to a lesser extent to beetles. During the research, we observed numerous examples of reducing the loss of forest stands when catching bark beetles in this way.

Keywords: pheromones, traps, coniferous-rodent pests, leaf-rodent pests, monitoring, prognosis, adult.

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