ECOLGICAL AND FOREST FEATURES OF BOGS OF ZHYTOMYR POLISSYA

V. Levchenko, N. Rusetskaya, D. Navolnieva

Abstract


Topical issues of importance of forest marsh ecosystems in the processes of forest types formation in Zhytomyr Polissya are substantiated. Preliminary analysis of materials of typological determination of forest swamp edatopes of Zhytomyr Polissya is carried out. It is established that the Polissia Forest Swamps are sustainable ecological systems.

The subject of this work is fundamental forest typological studies of swamp forest types, which are quite widespread in the conditions of Zhytomyr Polissya. This is due to the difficult hydrological situation in the Polesie region, climate change, lack of surface runoff, drying up and milling of forest bogs, which completely reduced the filling of small rivers of Polissya with water.

The purpose of the study is to study and systematize materials on the typology of forest marsh ecosystems of Zhytomyr Polissya. It has been established that wetlands are reserves of natural waters, as well as unique ecosystems that regulate the water regime of small rivers of Zhytomyr woodland, and prevent water deficiency.

The main methods of work are the calculation and analytical on the collection and processing of the results of typological monitoring of forest marsh ecosystems in the conditions of Zhytomyr Polissya, as well as conducting of forest, typological, biological observations and studies that revealed significant changes in the forest habitat of Zhytomyr.

According to the results of the work, it is established that the forest swamp ecosystems of Zhytomyr Polissya began to change due to changes in climatic factors in the studied territory. This is especially true for forest areas adjacent to wetland forest ecosystems, which is accompanied not only by the change of stand, but also by the massive drying up of forest plantations, the loss of large numbers of wetland plant species.

As a result of the conducted researches it was found that forest bog ecosystems of Zhytomyr Polissya are not only reservoirs of fresh water for small rivers of the region, but also form unique forest hygrotopes, which allow the distribution of forest biodiversity, including rare ones. This will allow a detailed study of the importance of different types of forests and species of forest marshes in terms of their impact on the climate formation of the Polesie region of Ukraine and Zhytomyr Polissya in particular.

The scope of research results are forestry enterprises of the Zhytomyr Regional Forestry and Hunting Directorate, Ecological and Naturalistic Centers, State Ecological Inspections including in the Zhytomyr region for telmatological monitoring of the status of forest swamp ecosystems, as well as the nature of forestry wetland ecocenoses of Zhytomyr Polesie.

The findings of the studies are that in Zhytomyr Polissya lowland swamps with eutrophic vegetation predominate. They are extremely rich and diverse in nature, which is explained by the conditions of water and mineral nutrition. Among the eutrophic marshes, we have identified three groups of bolt formations. Of these, the most widespread and quite diverse are grass marsh bogs, to a lesser extent, forest, fragmentary shrubs. The basis of the grass cover of eutrophic marsh bogs are: large petal (Lyceria maxima), common cane (Phragmites australis), different types of sedges (Care.x acutifonths, C. omskiana, C. vesicaria, C, acutd), other species of marsh grasses In particular: (horsetail river Equisetum fluviatile), weasel willow (Lyihrum sahcaria), common willow (Lysimachia vulgaris), which, under the conditions of most forest marsh ecosystems of Zhytomyr Polissya, form special water conservation types of forests. As a result of our research, it has been established that forest eutrophic marshes in Zhytomyr region are represented by two formations of alder (Alneta glutinosae) and birch marsh (Betulela pahulosa). In the course of telematological monitoring, we have found that the classic place of growth and dominance of alder glue (Alnus giutinosci) is a formidable part of the floodplain, which is very moist and rich in minerals. We have identified that a characteristic feature of alder marsh marshes of this type is the great diversity of the natural relief, the presence of marshy pedestals and inter-stem reductions. As a result of the monitoring, we have determined in detail that the reductions are dominated by different species of sedge: Carex riparia, sedge (C. vesicaria), sedge (C. acutiformis), and species of hydrophilic species specific for these types of forest. grasses, in particular: swamp specimens (Colla palustris), trefoil (Menyanlhes trifoliata), marsh marsh (Naumburgia thyrsijlora). We have found that there are different types of hydrophilic ferns on the elevations, including: Thelypteris palustris, Drypteris carthusiana, Athyrium filix-femina, Drybird, Zhytomyr woodland. During the reconnaissance studies we found that the most represented among the marsh eutrophic marshes of the Zhytomyr Polissya is a group of grass marsh associations, their coenoses usually develop in conditions of excessive moistening and cover most of the area of valley, floodplain and partially boggy marshes. climate change phenomenon. The vegetation cover of grassy eutrophic marshes is represented by sedge, cereal and petal plant formations of the sedge Om (Caned omskianae), sedge acute (C. acutae), sedge bubbly (C. vesicariae), large petal (Glycerieta maximaetis a common (Vreta aureta), reed ). When conducting forest typological and biological research we found that modern grassland-marsh bogs and their unique vegetation under the influence of human economic activity have undergone significant changes and require, on the one hand, scientifically sound and rational use of nature, and on the other, the conduct of the complex nature conservation measures for the conservation of forest swamp types of forests in the conditions of Zhytomyr Polissya.

Keywords: swamp, forest, forest types, bogs, wetland ecosystems, climate change, rare species, surface runoff, small rivers.


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.26886/2414-634X.9(36)2019.2

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